Lexicon of Sanskrit Terms

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A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


A

Abhâva. Negation (point).
Abhimâna. Ego projection onto an object; I-feeling.
Adhâra-shakti. The power in mulâdhâra.
Adhiti. Infinite Supreme Power. Supreme Consciousness endowed with Prâna.
Adhyâtma Yoga. Spiritual Yoga.
Âgama. Intellectually transferred non-sensorial knowledge.
Agarbha (vigharbha). Breath-control without mantra and concentration.
Agni. The catabolic principle in the body.
Ahang (aham). Ego, I-ness.
Ahankâra. Identification of the self with the non-self; our ordinary consciousness.
Âhara. Tantric term for inhalation.
Ahingsâ. Non-violence; universal love.
Aikya. See samatâ.
Ajapa. The natural sound of breathing, termed in Yoga hangsah mantra or sound.
Akahara. Supreme Being with attributes.
Akânana. Centrifugal force-motion.
Âkâsha mahâbhuta. Void metamatter.
Amâkalâ. The power to maintain consciousness in the state of samprajñâta samâdhi.
Amritâ. Life-substance.
Anâhata mantra. The original natural sound of mantra.
Ânanda samâdhi. Fourth stage of samâdhi where the sensory organs are disconnected from objects, and where the relation subject-object starts to disappear; happiness.
Ananyabhakti. Focused concentrated flow of love for God.
Anga. Constituent part of an entity. See Ashtanga.
Antah-kumbhaka. Inspiratory breath retention.
Antahmanas. Upanishadic term for mind as a whole.
Antahkharana. Tantric term for mind as a whole.
Antaryoga. Mental worship; tantric concentration process on Kundalini.
Anu. Infinitesimal.
Anumâna. Inference.
Apâna, apânana. Upanishadic term for inspiration.
Apânana. Centrifugal vital force-motion.
Apânayama. Prânayâma control method over apâna.
Aparigraha. Non-covetousness.
Apasâra. Expiration.
Ap mahabhuta. Water metamatter.
Arupa-dhyâna. Deep concentration without form.
Arthavattva. Intentional sensory principle ; intentional material principle.
Asamprajñâta samâdhi. Last stage of samâdhi ; supra-consciousness. A form of samâdhi in which the consciousness is not formed by any object, not even the awareness of the individual self.
Âsana. Third discipline of the eightfold path (ashtanga) of Yoga; body posture used for mental concentration or physical control and development.
Ashabda. Non-sound (condition of).
Ashtanga Yoga. Yoga doctrine composed primarily of eight sub-disciplines: yama, niyama, âsana, prânâyâma, pratyâhâra, dhâranâ, dhyâna and samâdhi.
Asmita. The “I” when related to sensory objects.
Asmitâ samâdhi. Third stage of samâdhi where the yogi is aware of the self released of the non-self.
Asteya. Refraining from stealing.
Âtman. The Self, whether or not identified with the Absolute according to various Hindu schools of thought.
Avadhâna. Attention.
Avatâra. Incarnation of God.
Avidyâ. Human basic ignorance on spirituality.
Avyakta. Primus.

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B

Bâhya–kumbhaka. Expiratory breath retention.
Bandha. Binding; lock of bodily posture.
Bandhana. Control.
Bhajan (or kirtan). Widespread devotional song, common in Bhakti Yoga.
Bhakta. Practitioner of Bhakti Yoga.
Bhakti. Path of devotion, love of the Divine. Spiritualized intense love.
Bhakti Yoga Path of devotion to the Divine.
Bhastra kumbhaka. Thoracic hyperventilation with breath-retention.
Bhastrikâ. Thoracic hyperventilation.
Bhâva. Feeling.
Bhâvanâ. Thought-concentration; thought.
Bhoga. Sensual pleasure.
Bhogi. Hedonist.
Bhutas. Five potential forces that act on the sensory organs, to which they present material forms.
Bhuta-shuddhi. Mental process intended for awakening Kundalinî.
Bija-mantra. Concentrated sound power, resulting from combined matrika-units.
Bindu. Supremely concentrated power; consciousness point; conscious form, as a deity.
Bindu chakra. The thousand-petalled lotus called sahasrâra.
Bodha. Notion.
Buddhi. Intellective mind.
Bija mantra. Concentrated form of sound, its “seed”.
Brahmâ. God as Creator.
Brahmacharya. Chastity; control of sexuality.
Brahman. Supreme Consciousness.
Brahmamantra prânayâma. Breath-control exercise with inhalation and expiration through the same nostril.
Buthashuddhi prânayâma. Internal purificatory breathing.

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C

Chakra. Non-material center of a force that is perceivable in a certain state of supra- consciousness.
Chandra Kundali. Moon Kundali.
Chandra prânayâma. Left-nostril inspiratory breath-control.
Châranâ. See châranâ-kriya.
Châranâ-kriya. Training method for muscular contraction and control that is complementary to the âsanas.
Chela (or sadhak, shishya). Student, follower, practitioner of Yoga.
Chikirshâ. Volition.
Chitta. Field of the consciousness in which the sensory world is reflected. Perceptive mind.
Chittakshaya. The complete absorption of sense-consciousness.

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D

Dahana. Burning.
Daiva manas. Supernormal mind.
Daiva prâna. Supernormal life-force.
Darshana. School of thought in India; point of view; auspicious internal or external vision of a yogic ideal (yogi, naga naga, sadhu…).
Deva deha. Ideal of the yogi; radiant, divine ideal; outstanding being.
Devatâ. Divinity; revealed spiritual supra-consciousness.
Dhâranâ. Sixth discipline of the eightfold path (ashtanga) of Yoga; first stage of mental concentration in which the current of mental attention towards a given object is intermittent.
Dhârana. Breath-suspension.
Dharma. Righteousness; timless law; universal order; virtue; ethics.
Dhâtu. Basic constituent of the body.
Dhi. Mental faculty of concentration.
Dhyâna. Seventh discipline of the eightfold path (ashtanga) of Yoga; second stage of mental concentration with sustained focusing on a given object.
Dhyâna mudra. Characteristic posture of the hands in mental concentration.
Dhyâna samvid. Inner light.
Dikshâ. Important stage for the disciple candidate, who connects to a line spiritual masters, gurus.
Dvapara-yuga. The third of four divisions of Time in Hindu cosmology.
Dvesha. Lack of interest, displeasure, aversion (as opposed to râga). Cf. also vayrâgya.

 

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E

Ekâgratâ. Concentratedness; state of intensive mono-focal thought.
Ekadhanâvarodhana. Bio-energy control.
Ekatânatâ. Continuous, unchanged flow of concentrated consciousness.

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G

Gâyatri. The Goddess of mantra-sounds; the sound-emitting divine power.
Granthi. Knot.
Gunas. Three original principles present in any phenomenon of creation: tamas, rajas and sattva. A force can only be understood when it undergoes a change. Initially, we are completely unaware of its existence. The unknown form of this force is tamas, the potential principle of inertia. The changing form of this force is rajas—principle of energy or transformational principle. The perception-comprehension of its existence, as a result of its changing form, is sattva—the principle of cognition.
Guru. In India, the term has the general meaning of teacher or the restricted sense of one who transmits spiritual knowledge and initiation (dikshâ). The word by no means has the pejorative sense commonly attributed to it in the West.

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H

Hangsa. Mantric unit (unification) (hang+sa) of the breathing; transcription of the first sound of the Ong (or Aum, Om) mantra on the sensory level.
Hatha Yoga. One of the four fundamental paths of the original Yoga (Mahâ Yoga).
Hridâya. The nonconscious aspect of mind where impressions are stored.
Hridayâñjali mudrâ. Cup-shaped aligning of hands and fingers in the lap.

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I

Icchâ. Will; desire; inclination
Idâ. One of the three principal nâdis; white directional subtle force (on the left-hand side).
Indriya âharana. Pratyâhâra; sense-withdrawal; sensory control.
Indriya manas. Sense-mind.
Indriya sangharana. Sensory withdrawal.
Indriya sangyama. Sensory control.
Indriya sannivesha. Left-nostril inspiratory breath-control.
Indriya yama. See Indriya âharana.
Ishtadevatâ. A living divine form arising from a living mantra.
Ishvarapranidhâna. Mental concentration emanating and associated with the love of the Divine.

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J

Jala-vasti. Self-cleansing of the colon carried out without mechanical assistance.
Jâlandhara-bandha (mudra). Voluntary pharyngeal obstruction by chin-lock.
Japa. Repetition of dikshâ-related mantra(s) which can be either uttered, (vâchika), whispered (upangshu) or expressed in thought-form (manâsa).
Jivatman. Being incarnated from the divine essence (jiva + atman). Jiva is a limited form of consiousness controlled by maya and expressing kâma , râga-dvesha and avidyâ.
Jñana Yoga. Raja Yoga-related path based on the philosophical distinction of Self and the ego.
Jñamâlâ. A garland of spiritual knowledge.
Jñânâtman. Sense-consciousness and intellect; perceptive mind; perceptive consciousness; chitta.
Jñanendriya. Cognitive senses.
Jyoti. Light; divine radiation.
Jyotishmati-pravritti. Extra-sensory light.

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K

Kâla. Time principle.
Kalâ. Life principle.
Kali Yuga. The last of four divisions of Time in Hindu cosmology.
Kalpa. Long period of Time in Hindu cosmology.
Kâma. Desire.
Kâmakalâ. The coiled creative power in sound-form; an aspect of supremely concentrated prâna (bindu power) enabling the transformation of pranic power into pranava, which relases 50 mâtrikas, and from which mind and matter come into being.
Kâma vâyu. Desire-radiating power.
Kañchukas. (Kañchupas.) Mâyâ’s five specific limiting powers, manifesting in embodied beings as time, regulation, pleasure, knowledge and life.
Kanda-sthâna. The perineum region.
Kârana-samâharana. Sensory withdrawal.
Kapâlabhâti. Diaphragmatic hyperventilation.
Kârana. The casual.
Karma Yoga. One of the forms of Raja-Yoga based on action.
Karmendriyas. Conative faculties.
Kevala kumbhaka. Spontaneous retention of the breath occurring in deep concentration or caused by sahita suspension (non-inspiratory-non-expiratory suspension).
Khecari mudra. Advanced method of breath control.
Kratu. Conative impulse.
Kriti. Conation.
Kumba Mela. Very ancient Hindu pilgrimage that is held in four-year cycles, in four different locations.
Kumbhaka. Breath retention (apnea).
Kriya Yoga. Path of ritualistic Yoga devoted to the Divine, asceticism and the study of the sacred writings made popular by the book Autobiography of a Yogi, by Paramhansa Yogananda.
Kshipta. A distracted mind characterized by constant oscillations under the influence of rajas.
Kundalini (kundali). Spiritual consciousness that is potential or dynamic, and is sublime and radiant.
Kundali-sthâna. The seat of Kundalini.

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L

Laya. Absorptive concentration; deep concentration causing the absorption of the cosmic principles.
Layakriyâ. Absorptive concentration process.
Laya Yoga. One of the four paths of supreme Yoga (Mahâ Yoga) based on the chakras and Kundalinî.
Linga. Form with broad basis that tapers upwards to become a dot at its apex.
Lingam. Ancient, Hindu sacred symbol.
Loka. World; chakra.

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M

Madhyama. Subliminal.
Mahâbhuta or “Metamatter” (Goswami). That aspect of matter which lies beyond the boundary of elementary particles and anu-point.
Mahâlaya. Supreme absorptive concentration.
Mahat. The “vast mind”; the separate Self.
Mahâ Yoga. Supreme Yoga; the original Yoga which consists of eight fundamental disciplines (ashtanga); mental superconcentration (see asamprajñâta samâdhi).
Mahan. I-less supermind; superconsciousness.
Mahan archi. Superlight emanating from Kundalini.
Mahâ Yuga. Subdivision of the cyclical system manvantara.
Mahïtuna. Tantric sexual union included in the 5 “M’s”. See Pancha Makâra.
Manana. Dialectic reasoning.
Manas. Will-mind; sense-mind; subconscious mind.
Mânasa japa. The thinking of mantra.
Mânasa. Radiation; in particular subconscious radiation.
Manas-nirodhana. Sense-mind control.
Manas tattwa. Principle of mind; integral mind.
Manasyana. Willing.
Mani-châlana. Muscular exercise developing the trunk and the neck.
Manisha. Superintellect.
Mantra. Sound energy that by a special procedure can awaken inner forces and spiritual awareness. In Yoga practice: single or multiple phoneme with no linguistic meaning.
Mantra chaitanya. The process of enlivening a vaikhari (audible) -mantra.
Mantra japa. Reiteration of a mantra.
Mantra Yoga. One of the four fundamental paths of original Yoga (Mahâ-Yoga).
Manu. Founding father of humanity in each cosmic cycle.
Manvantara. Cyclical passage of Time.
Mati. Thought.
Mâtrikâ (-varna). Primary lettered mantra used as a sound-unit.
Mauna. Practice of silence.
Maya. Supreme Power as negato-positivity.
Medha. Retentive power.
Mela. See Kumba Mela.
Meru-châlana. Exercise developing the neck muscles.
Metamatter. See Mahâbhuta.
Mitahara. Moderation in eating.
Moksha. Reduction, liberation.
Mrityu. Death; the central spiritual power causing absorption.
Mudha. A state of mind where inertia or dullness prevails under the influence of tamas.
Mudra. Control exercise; hand posture.
Mulâbandha. Exercise of voluntary contraction of the anus.
Mulâ-mantra. The seed mantra imparted to a disciple by his guru.

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N

Nâda. The source of original creativity; causal or unmanifested sound; sound power.
Nadi. Immaterial channel; pranic force of kinetic radiation; what moves.
Nadi Chakra. Energy field; kinetic force acting through the body.
Nadi Shuddhi. Purification procedure for cleaning and energizing the body in the advanced practice of prânayâma aiming at aiding mental concentration.
Naga naga. (or naga baba, naga sadhu). Elite ascetic in Yoga.
Nârâyana. Supreme Consciousness; Supreme Being beyond manifestation.
Neti-Neti. Not this – nor that.
Nidra. Sleep.
Nigraha. Control.
Nirguna-dhyâna. Deep concentration without form.
Nirmanu. Acts of bodily purification.
Nirodha. Suspension; control of mental fluctuations (vrittis); highest control of the mental.
Nirodhikâ. The power of supreme control.
Nirvânakalâ. A super-absorptive state of consciousness (first step of asamprajñâta samâdhi).
Nirvâna shakti. All-absorbing Kundali power.
Nirvikalpa samâdhi. Synonym of asamprajñâta samâdhi.
Nishkala. State with no manifestation of Shakti Power (absorbed in Shiva).
Niyama. Second discipline of Patanjali’s eightfold path (ashtanga) of Yoga, which consists of five ethical rules: soucha, santoshâ, tapas, svâdhyâya, ishvara-pranidhâna. Observance of these rules.
Nyâsa. Purification method consisting of placing hands on certain parts of the body with appropriate mantras.
Niyati. Regulatory principle.

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O

Ojas. Vital force derived from prâna.

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P

Padmâsana. “Lotus” -sitting posture.
Pancha dhârana. Five forms of holding-control.
Pancha Makâra (five “M’s”). Sacred Tantric practice based on sociocultural prohibitions, which takes a symbolic direction among orthodox Hindus.
Parâ. Supreme.
Paradevatâ. The Supreme Power-Consciousness.
Paramâtman. Supreme spirit.
Parama Shiva. Supreme Consciousness infinite and whole.
Parasharirâvesha. Yogic process for entering into a dead body to enliven it and functioning.
Parâvâch. Principle of sound.
Parâvairâgya. Sublime detachment. Capacity to exclude the external world from the mind.
Pashyanti. Radiant.
Pinda. Basic force of the body.
Pingalâ. One of the three principal nâdis; red directional force (on the right-hand side).
Plâvana. Irradiation.
Prajñana. Superconsciousness.
Prakriti. Physis; perfect balance of the three gunas: tamas, rajas and sattva.
Pramâna. Valid cognition with three underlying modalities: Pratyakasha, anumâna and agama. (See these words.)
Prâna. Universal, central bio-energetic force embedded in Supreme Power; Upanishadic term for exhalation.
Prâna-apâna sangyama. Breath-control.
Prâna-mantra. The enlivened mantra; a living mantra.
Prânana. Central vital force-motion; metabolism; expiration.
Pranava -(nâda). The first mantra Ong (Aum, Om).
Prâna vayu. Energy entity which connects the body to the mind.
Prânayâma. Fourth discipline of the eightfold path (ashtanga) of Yoga; yogic method of breath control.
Pranidhâna. Higher form of dedication.
Pratyâhâra. Fifth discipline of the eightfold path (ashtanga) of Yoga. Voluntary mental withdrawal from sensory objects; control of the senses.
Prathyâharana. Sensory withdrawal.
Pratyaksha. Perception.
Pratibhâ. Genius.
Prithtivi mahâbhuta. Earth metamatter.
Puja. Form of Hindu cultural expression; veneration, worship.
Puraka. Inspiration.
Purnavidyâ. Supreme Consciousness.
Purusha. Metempiric entity; disembodied consciousness; supra-consciousness; form of consciousness beyond duality that cannot be objectified; the Self.

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R

Râga. Craving, or attraction to mundane pleasures (cf. also dvesha).
Râga-dvesha. Natural alternation in man of the attraction of pleasure and its opposite.
Râgâtmikâ bhakti. Spiritual all-love.
Rajas. See gunas.
Rajah Yoga. Primary energy-principle. The “Royal Way”; one of the four fundamental paths of Mahâ-yog
Râsa. The various water contents of the body; taste.
Rechaka. Exhalation.
Retas. Male seed used in an advanced method of controlling sexual energy.
Reta Yoga. One of the four eras of manvantara.
Rishi. Sage from Hindu antiquity able “to see” all the Vedas.
Ritambhara-prajña. Super-consciousness revealing the truth.
Rodha. Control.
Ruchira. Breath retention.
Rudra. Supreme Consciousness manifesting the power of absorbing the Creation.

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S

Sâdhak. Synonym for chela and shishya.
Sâdhana. See Yoga sâdhana.
Sagarbha. Breath-control combined with mantra and concentration.
Saguna-dhyâna. Deep concentration on form.
Sahaja. State of superconcentration.
Sahita. Inspiratory-expiratory retention.
Sakala. With manifested form.
Samâdhi. Eighth discipline of the eightfold path (ashtanga) of Yoga; end result of mental concentration. In this intense concentration the yogi has no more awareness of himself. Only the object of concentration, and nothing else, illuminates his consciousness. This stage of samâdhi is called samprajñâta, because the known is seen here in a extrasensory form. Samprajñâta samâdhi includes four subdivisions: vitarka, vichâra, asmitâ, and ânanda. See also asamprajñâta samâdhi.
Samânana. Balancing force-motion.
Samânayâma. Prânayâma method to control samâna.
Sâmânya spanda. Basic uniform infinitesimal motion.
Samatâ. State of oneness by absorption into the Supreme.
Samprajñâta samâdhi. See samâdhi.
Samskâras. Subliminal impressions.
Sanâtana Dharma. Sacred concept of an eternal order in Hindu thought; unites religion and metaphysics.
Sangjñana. Perceptive consciousness.
Sangyama. Highest level of Yoga mastery; superunion in a state of supercontrolled concentration.
Sangyoga. Superunion.
Santosha. Satisfaction.
Saraswati châlana. Advanced process to awaken the Kundalinî.
Sarupa-dhyâna. Deep concentration on form.
Sarvabhâvâtmabhâvana. Multiform consciousness.
Sarva chitta. Multiform consciousness.
Sarvârthata. Scattering ; scattered consciousness.
Sat Chit Ânanda. Being-Consciousness-Bliss.
Satkarman. Six fundamental acts of bodily purification.
Sattva. See gunas.
Satya. Truthfulness.
Satya Yuga. One of the four eras (of truth) in Hindu cosmology.
Shabdabrahman. Aspect of Kundalini in its aspect of unmanifested sound (para sound).
Shabda tanmâtra. Sound tanon.
Shakti. Force; female aspect of the Divine. See Shiva-Shakti.
Shaktichâlana. Thoracico-abdomincal control exercise.
Shambhâvi. Internal gazing process.
Shankalpa. Will-consciousness. Prewill.
Shankprakshalana. Total self-cleansing of the intestine with water and no mechanical support.
Shanti. Peace of mind (a prerequisite in Hindu tradition to embrace Yoga Sadhana); a girl’s given name.
Shaucha. Cleanliness.
Shishya. Synonym for chela or sadhak.
Shitali. Lingual breath-control.
Shiva-Shakti. Experience of the Absolute, beyond the mind, where power (Shakti) is closely related to supreme consciousness (Shiva).
Shodana. Internal purification of the body.
Shruti. Revealed writings of the Hindu culture in particular the Vedas, Brâhmanas, and Upanishads.
Shukra. The sexual energy that produces sexual secretions in both females and males.
Shuska-vasti. Self-cleansing with air, carried out without mechanical aid.
Siddha mantra. Enlivened mantra to accomplish a specific purpose.
Siddhâsana. “Accomplished” -sitting posture.
Siddhis. Extraordinary human powers.
Sitkara. A breathing process.
Soma. The anabolic principle of the body.
Sthira. Steadiness.
Sthula. The coarse aspect of visible things.
Sthulakriyâ. Muscular control process.
Sukha. Ease.
Suksmakriyâ. Breath-control process.
Supreme Bindu. Supreme power-concentration.
Suryâ Kundali. Sun Kundali.
Sutra. Aphoristic statement from sacred Hindu literature.
Sukhâsana. Easy cross-leg posture known as the “tailor-posture”.
Sukshma. Subtle.
Suryabheda. Right-nostril breath control.
Suryakumbhaka. Right-nostril inspiratory breath-control.
Sushumnâ. The principal of the three pranic forms (nâdis).
Svâdhyâya. Spiritual study, including japa mantra.
Svanâna (abbreviated as svanon). Seed-mantra.
Svara Yoga. Alternative to prânayâma, based on an infra-diurnal breathing cycle.
Svarupa. A particular sensory form.

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T

Tamas. Primary inertia-principle; see gunas.
Tanmâtra orTanon” (Goswami). Miniaturized form of the bhutas, five in number.
Tantrik(a) Yoga. A more recent, enlarged form of Vedic Yoga expounded by Shiva and Parvati and collected in the Tantras.
Tapas. Asceticism; specific energy process.
Tejas mahâbhuta. Fire metamatter.
Trâtaka. Gazing.
Trirasra. A triangle.
Turya. Fourth state of consciousness beyond waking, sleeping, and dreaming.
Turya Kundali. Supreme Kundali.

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U

Udânana. Centripetal force-motion.
Udânayâma. Prânayâma control process over prâna.
Uddiyâna (Udriyâna). Voluntary abdominal retraction.
Uddiyânabandha. Exercise of abdominal retraction.
Ujjâyi. Both-nostrils breath-control.
Unmani. Non-oscillating consciousness.
Upangshu japa. The whispering of mantra.
Upâsanâ. Spiritual practice.
Urdhva-retas. He whose seminal flow is reversed.

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V

Vâc. Word.
Vâchaka-shakti (power). Kundalini appearing as devatâ.
Vâchika japa. The vocal uttering of mantra.
Vâchya-shakti. Power as conciousness.
Vahni Kundali. Fire Kundali.
Vahidhi-bhakti. Ritualistic, devotional divine love.
Vaikhari. Acoustic; mantra in its audible form.
Vajroli. Advanced method of sexual control.
Vâju. Kinetic force; active manifestation of prâna.
Vamana-dhauti. Self-cleansing of the stomach carried out with water.
Varisara. Advanced self-cleansing of the intestinal tract with water, carried out without mechanical support.
Varna. Specific power-line created by the force of a mâtrikâ unit.
Vasa-dhauti. Self-cleansing of the esophagus and the stomach by ingesting and withdrawing a long, narrow strip of gauze.
Vâsanâ. Latent impression of feeling.
Vatusara. Self-cleansing of the intestinal tract with air, carried out without mechanical support.
Vâyana, vyânana. Breath retention.
Vayrâgya. State of nonattachment to earthly things.
Vâyu. Bio-energy, the constant motion of pranic force.
Veda. Knowledge. Name given to the four books revealed to the rishis in the time known as Vedic, which contain all divine wisdom. They are the Rig Veda, Sama Veda, Ayur Veda, and Atharva Veda.
Vedic Yoga. The original form of Yoga shaped by the Vedic mantra language, and explained in the Upanishads.
Vibhuti. Super power; superhuman capacity.
Vichâra samâdhi. Second stage of samâdhi where the yogi perceives a tanmâtra.
Vidyâ. Knowledge principle.
Vijñana. Intellective consciousness.
Vikalpa. Elevated thought.
Vikshipta. A scattered mind slightly modified under the influence of sattva.
Viparyaya. Misconception.
Vishayavati pravritti. Super-sensory enlightenment.
Vishesha spanda. Particularised motion that releases a particular sound.
Vishnu. God in his sustaining aspect.
Vitarka samâdhi. First stage of samâdhi where the yogi perceives a bhuta as a separate element.
Vivakaja-jñana. A perfect all-enlightening knowledge.
Vivekâkhyati. Differentiating knowledge. Form of knowledge where Self and non-self appear as two distinct entities.
Vritti. Mental fluctuation by which consciousness takes the shape of an object; cognitive form; imaged consciousness and/or non-consciousness.
Vyâyâma. Physical education; muscular exercise.
Vyâna, vyânana. Upanishadic terms for breath-suspension.
Vyutthâna. Post-concentration waking stage.

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Y

Yajñamastoma. The germ of power-manifestation, which in Tantric terms
consists of Supreme Nâda and Bindu.
Yama. First discipline of Patanjali’s eightfold path (ashtanga) of Yoga, consisting of five ethical rules: ahimsâ, satya, asteya, brahmacharya, aparigraha; control, abstention.
Yogachittavrittinirodha. Traditional definition of Yoga according to Patanjali (2nd aphorism); state of mind in which all vritti cease.
Yoga darshana. “Philosophy” of Yoga.
Yogajana. Union.
Yoga-nidrâ. Yoga-sleep; superconcentration.
Yoga sâdhana. Path; practice of Yoga.
Yogâsana. Yogic posture; concentration posture.
Yoga vibhuti. Omnipotency.
Yoni mudra. Exercise of sexual control.
Yuga. Long phase of Time in Hindu cosmology.

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Z

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