संस्कृत के शब्दों का शब्दकोश
This glossary is intended to enlighten the reader’s understanding of the lectures on this website. As such it offers a glimpse of Yoga tradition’s rich terminology, handed down for centuries, yet omitting orally transferred terms.
Limited in number, its entries chiefly consist of a selected list of simply transliterated Sanskrit terms.
अभाव् = Negation (point).
अभिमान = Ego projection onto an object; I-feeling.
आचमन = Water sipping with mantra.
अधार-शक्ति = The power in mulâdhâra.
अधिति = Infinite Supreme Power; Supreme Consciousness endowed with Prâna.
अध्यात्म योग = Spiritual Yoga.
आगम = Hindu scriptures; intellectual knowledge of non-sensorial origin (shruti).
अगर्भ (विगर्भ) = Breath-control without mantra and concentration.
अघमर्षण = Pharyngonasal cleaning.
अग्नि = The catabolic principle in the body.
अहं = Ego, I-ness.
अहंकार = Identification of the self with the non-self; our ordinary consciousness.
आहर = Tantric term for inhalation.
अहिंसा = Non-violence; universal love.
ऐक्य = State of oneness by absorption into the Supreme (Same as समता)
अजपा = The natural sound of breathing, termed in Yoga hangsah/ haMsa mantra or sound
अक्षर = Supreme Being with attributes.
अकानन = Centrifugal force-motion.
आकाश महाभूत = Void metamatter.
अमाकला = The power to maintain consciousness in the state of samprajñâta samâdhi.
अमृत = Life-substance.
अनाहत मंत्र = The original natural sound of mantra.
आनंद समाधि = Fourth stage of samâdhi where the sensory organs are disconnected from objects, and where the relation subject-object starts to disappear; happiness.
अनन्य भक्ति = Focused concentrated flow of love for God.
अंग = Constituent part of an entity. See Ashtanga.
अंतः-कुम्भक = Inspiratory breath retention.
अंतःमनस = Upanishadic term for mind as a whole.
अंतःकरण = Tantric term for mind as a whole.
अंतर्योग = Mental worship; tantric concentration process on Kundalini.
अणु = Infinitesimal.
अनुमान = Inference.
अपान, अपानन = Upanishadic term for inspiration.
अपानन = Centrifugal vital force-motion.
अपानयम = Prânayâma control method over apâna.
अपरिग्रह = Non-covetousness.
अपसारा = Expiration.
अप् महाभूत = Water metamatter.
अरुप ध्यान = Deep concentration without form.
अर्थवत्त्व = Intentional sensory principle ; intentional material principle.
असम्प्रज्ञातसमाधि = Last stage of samâdhi ; supra-consciousness. A form of samâdhi in which the consciousness is not formed by any object, not even the awareness of the individual self.
असम्प्रय्ग = A disconnection process.
आसन = Third discipline of the eightfold path (ashtanga) of Yoga; body posture used for mental concentration or physical control and development.
अशब्द = Non-sound (condition of).
अष्टांग योग = Yoga doctrine composed primarily of eight sub-disciplines: yama, niyama, âsana, prânâyâma, pratyâhâra, dhâranâ, dhyâna and samâdhi.
अस्मिता = The “I” when related to sensory objects.
अस्मिता समाधि = Third stage of samâdhi where the yogi is aware of the self released of the non-self.
अस्तेय = Refraining from stealing.
आत्मन् = The Self, whether or not identified with the Absolute according to various Hindu schools of thought.
अवधान = Attention.
अवतार = Incarnation of God.
अविद्या = Human basic ignorance on spirituality.
अव्यक्त = Primus.
बाह्य–कुम्भक = Expiratory breath retention.
बन्ध = Binding; lock of bodily posture.
बन्धन = Control.
भजन (याकीर्तन) = Widespread devotional song, common in Bhakti Yoga.
भक्त = Practitioner of Bhakti Yoga.
भक्ति = Path of devotion, love of the Divine. Spiritualized intense love.
भक्तियोग = Path of devotion to the Divine.
भस्त्राकुम्भक = Thoracic hyperventilation with breath-retention.
भस्त्रिका = Thoracic hyperventilation.
भाव = Feeling.
भावना = Thought-concentration; thought.
भोग = Sensual pleasure.
भोगी = Hedonist.
भूत = Five potential forces that act on the sensory organs, to which they present material forms.
भूत–शुद्धि = Mental process intended for awakening Kundalinî.
बीज–मंत्र = Concentrated sound power, resulting from combined matrika-units.
बिन्दु = Supremely concentrated power; consciousness point; conscious form, as a deity.
बिन्दुचक्र = The thousand-petalled lotus called sahasrâra.
बोध = Notion.
बुद्धि = Intellective mind.
बीजमंत्र = Concentrated form of sound, its “seed”.
ब्रह्मा = God as Creator.
ब्रह्मचर्य = Chastity; control of sexuality.
ब्राह्मण = Supreme Consciousness.
ब्रह्ममंत्रप्राणायाम = Breath-control exercise with inhalation and expiration through the same nostril.
भूतशुद्धिप्राणायाम = Internal purificatory breathing.
चक्र = Non-material center of a force that is perceivable in a certain state of supra- consciousness.
चंद्र कुंडली = Moon Kundali.
चन्द्र प्राणायम् = Left-nostril inspiratory breath-control.
चारणा = See châranâ-kriya.
चारणा-क्रिया = Training method for muscular contraction and control that is complementary to the âsanas.
चेला (या साधक, शिष्य) = Student, follower, practitioner of Yoga.
चिकीर्षा = Volition.
चित्त = Field of the consciousness in which the sensory world is reflected. Perceptive mind.
चित्तकश्य = The complete absorption of sense-consciousness.
दहना = Burning.
दैव मनस = Supernormal mind.
दैव प्राण = Supernormal life-force.
दर्शन = School of thought in India; point of view; auspicious internal or external vision of a yogic ideal (yogi, naga sadhu, sadhu…).
देव देह = Ideal of the yogi; radiant, divine ideal; outstanding being.
देवता = Divinity; revealed spiritual supra-consciousness.
धारणा = Sixth discipline of the eightfold path (ashtanga) of Yoga; first stage of mental concentration in which the current of mental attention towards a given object is intermittent.
धारण = Breath-suspension.
धर्म = Righteousness; timless law; universal order; virtue; ethics.
धातु = Basic constituent of the body.
धी = Mental faculty of concentration.
ध्यान = Seventh discipline of the eightfold path (ashtanga) of Yoga; second stage of mental concentration with sustained focusing on a given object.
ध्यान मुद्रा = Characteristic posture of the hands in mental concentration.
ध्यान संविद = Inner light.
दीक्षा = Important stage for the disciple candidate, who connects to a line spiritual masters, gurus.
द्वापर युग = The third of four divisions of Time in Hindu cosmology.
द्वेष = Lack of interest, displeasure, aversion (as opposed to râga). Cf. also vayrâgya.
एकाग्रता = Concentratedness; state of intensive mono-focal thought.
एकधनावरोधना = Bio-energy control.
एकतानता = Continuous, unchanged flow of concentrated consciousness.
गायत्री = The Goddess of mantra-sounds; the sound-emitting divine power.
ग्रन्थि = Knot.
गुण = Three original principles present in any phenomenon of creation: tamas, rajas and sattva. A force can only be understood when it undergoes a change. Initially, we are completely unaware of its existence. The unknown form of this force is tamas, the potential principle of inertia. The changing form of this force is rajas—principle of energy or transformational principle. The perception-comprehension of its existence, as a result of its changing form, is sattva—the principle of cognition.
गुरु = In India, the term has the general meaning of teacher or the restricted sense of one who transmits spiritual knowledge and initiation (dikshâ). The word by no means has the pejorative sense commonly attributed to it in the West.
हंस = Mantric unit (unification) (hang+sa) of the breathing; transcription of the first sound of the Ong (or Aum, Om) mantra on the sensory level.
हठ योग = One of the four fundamental paths of the original Yoga (Mahâ Yoga).
हृदाय = The nonconscious aspect of mind where impressions are stored.
हृदयांजलि मुद्रा = Cup-shaped aligning of hands and fingers in the lap.
इच्छा = Will; desire; inclination.
इडा = One of the three principal nâdis; white directional subtle force (on the left-hand side).
इन्द्रिय आहरण = Pratyâhâra; sense-withdrawal; sensory control.
इन्द्रिय मनस् = Sense-mind.
इन्द्रिय संहरण = Sensory withdrawal.
इन्द्रिय संयम = Sensory control.
इन्द्रिय सन्निवेश = Left-nostril inspiratory breath-control.
इन्द्रिय यम = See Indriya âharana.
इष्टदेवता = A living divine form arising from a living mantra.
ईश्वरप्रणिधान = Mental concentration emanating and associated with the love of the Divine.
जल-वस्ति = Self-cleansing of the colon carried out without mechanical assistance.
जालन्धर बंध (मुद्रा) = Voluntary pharyngeal obstruction by chin-lock.
जप = Repetition of dikshâ-related mantra(s) which can be either uttered, (vâchika), whispered (upangshu) or expressed in thought-form (manâsa).
जीवात्मन = Being incarnated from the divine essence (jiva + atman). Jiva is a limited form of consiousness controlled by maya and expressing kâma, râga-dvesha and avidyâ.
ज्ञान योग = Raja Yoga-related path based on the philosophical distinction of Self and the ego.
ज्ञान माला = A garland of spiritual knowledge.
ज्ञानात्मन = Sense-consciousness and intellect; perceptive mind; perceptive consciousness; chitta.
ज्ञानेन्द्रिय = Cognitive senses.
ज्योति = Light; divine radiation.
ज्योतिष्मती-प्रवृत्ति = Extra-sensory light.
काल = Time principle.
कला = Life principle.
कलि युग = The last of four divisions of Time in Hindu cosmology.
कल्प = Long period of Time in Hindu cosmology.
काम = Desire.
कामकला = The coiled creative power in sound-form; an aspect of supremely concentrated prâna (bindu power) enabling the transformation of pranic power into pranava, which relases 50 mâtrikas, and from which mind and matter come into being.
काम वायु = Desire-radiating power.
कञ्चुक (कञ्चुप) = Mâyâ’s five specific limiting powers, manifesting in embodied beings as time, regulation, pleasure, knowledge and life.
कन्द-स्थान = The perineum region.
कारण-समाहरण = Sensory withdrawal.
कपालभाती = Diaphragmatic hyperventilation.
कारण = The casual.
कर्म योग = One of the forms of Raja-Yoga based on action.
कर्मेन्द्रिय = Conative faculties.
केवल कुम्भक = Spontaneous retention of the breath occurring in deep concentration or caused by sahita suspension (non-inspiratory-non-expiratory suspension).
खेचरी मुद्रा = Advanced method of breath control.
क्रतु = Conative impulse.
कृति = Conation.
कुंभ मेला = Very ancient Hindu pilgrimage that is held in four-year cycles, in four different locations.
कुम्भक = Breath retention (apnea).
क्रिया योग = Path of ritualistic Yoga devoted to the Divine, asceticism and the study of the sacred writings made popular by the book Autobiography of a Yogi, by Paramhansa Yogananda.
क्षिप्त = A distracted mind characterized by constant oscillations under the influence of rajas.
कुण्डलिनी (कुण्डली) = Spiritual consciousness that is potential or dynamic, and is sublime and radiant.
कुण्डली स्थान = The seat of Kundalini.
लय = Absorptive concentration; deep concentration causing the absorption of the cosmic principles.
लयक्रिया = Absorptive concentration process.
लययोग = One of the four paths of supreme Yoga (Mahâ Yoga) based on the chakras and Kundalinî.
लिंग (लिङ्ग) = Form with broad basis that tapers upwards to become a dot at its apex.
लिंगम (लिङ्गम) = Ancient, Hindu sacred symbol.
लोक = World; chakra.
मध्यम = Subliminal.
महाभूत or “Metamatter” (Goswami) = That aspect of matter which lies beyond the boundary of elementary particles and anu-point.
महालय = Supreme absorptive concentration.
महत् = The “vast mind”; the separate Self.
महा योग = Supreme Yoga; the original Yoga which consists of eight fundamental disciplines (ashtanga); mental superconcentration (see asamprajñâta samâdhi).
महन् = I-less supermind; superconsciousness.
महन् अर्चि = Superlight emanating from Kundalini.
महा युग = Subdivision of the cyclical system manvantara.
मैथुन = Tantric sexual union included in the 5 “M’s”. See Pancha Makâra.
मनन = Dialectic reasoning.
मनस् = Will-mind; sense-mind; subconscious mind.
मानस जप = The thinking of mantra.
मानस = Radiation; in particular subconscious radiation.
मनस्-निरोधन = Sense-mind control.
मनस् तत्त्व = Principle of mind; integral mind.
मनसयन = Willing.
मणि-चालन = Muscular exercise developing the trunk and the neck.
मनीषा = Superintellect.
मन्त्र = Sound energy that by a special procedure can awaken inner forces and spiritual awareness. In Yoga practice: single or multiple phoneme with no linguistic meaning.
मन्त्र चैतन्य = The process of enlivening a vaikhari (audible) -mantra.
मन्त्र जप = Reiteration of a mantra.
मन्त्र योग = One of the four fundamental paths of original Yoga (Mahâ-Yoga).
मनु = Founding father of humanity in each cosmic cycle.
मन्वन्तर = Cyclical passage of Time.
मति = Thought.
मात्रिका (-वर्ण) = Primary lettered mantra used as a sound-unit.
मौन = Practice of silence.
माया = Supreme Power as negato-positivity.
मेधा = Retentive power.
मेला = See Kumba Mela.
मेरु-चालन = Exercise developing the neck muscles.
मिताहार = Moderation in eating.
मोक्ष = Reduction, liberation.
मृत्यु = Death; the central spiritual power causing absorption.
मूढ = A state of mind where inertia or dullness prevails under the influence of tamas.
मुद्रा = Control exercise; hand posture.
मूलबन्ध = Exercise of voluntary contraction of the anus.
मूल-मन्त्र = The seed mantra imparted to a disciple by his guru.
नाद = The source of original creativity; causal or unmanifested sound; sound power.
नाडी = Immaterial channel; pranic force of kinetic radiation; what moves.
नाडी चक्र = Energy field; kinetic force acting through the body.
नाडी शुद्धि = Purification procedure for cleaning and energizing the body in the advanced practice of prânayâma aiming at aiding mental concentration.
नागा (अथवा नागा बाबा, नागा साधु) = Elite ascetic in Yoga.
नारायण = Supreme Consciousness; Supreme Being beyond manifestation.
नेति-नेति = Not this – nor that.
निद्रा = Sleep.
निग्रह = Control.
निर्गुण-ध्यान = Deep concentration without form.
निर्मनु = Acts of bodily purification.
निरोध = Suspension; control of mental fluctuations (vrittis); highest control of the mental.
निरोधिका = The power of supreme control.
निर्वाणकला = A super-absorptive state of consciousness (first step of asamprajñâta samâdhi).
निर्वाण शक्ति = All-absorbing Kundali power.
निर्विकल्प समाधि = Synonym of asamprajñâta samâdhi.
निष्कल = State with no manifestation of Shakti Power (absorbed in Shiva).
नियम = Second discipline of Patanjali’s eightfold path (ashtanga) of Yoga, which consists of five ethical rules: soucha, santoshâ, tapas, svâdhyâya, ishvara-pranidhâna. Observance of these rules.
न्यास = Purification method consisting of placing hands on certain parts of the body with appropriate mantras.
नियति = Regulatory principle.
ओजस् = Vital force derived from prâna.
पद्मासन = “Lotus” -sitting posture.
पंच धारण = Five forms of holding-control.
पंच मकार = (five “M’s”). Sacred Tantric practice based on sociocultural prohibitions, which takes a symbolic direction among orthodox Hindus.
परा = Supreme.
परदेवता = The Supreme Power-Consciousness.
परमात्मन् = Supreme spirit.
परम शिव = Supreme Consciousness infinite and whole.
परशरीरावेश = Yogic process for entering into a dead body to enliven it and functioning.
परावाच = Principle of sound.
परवैराग्य = Sublime detachment. Capacity to exclude the external world from the mind.
पश्यन्ती = Radiant.
पिण्ड = Basic force of the body.
पिंगल/पिङ्गल = One of the three principal nâdis; red directional force (on the right-hand side).
प्लावन = Irradiation.
प्रज्ञान = Superconsciousness.
प्रकृति = Physis; perfect balance of the three gunas: tamas, rajas and sattva.
प्रमाण = Valid cognition with three underlying modalities: Pratyakasha, anumâna and agama. (See these words.)
प्राण = Universal, central bio-energetic force embedded in Supreme Power; Upanishadic term for exhalation.
प्राण-अपान संयम = Breath-control.
प्राण-मंत्र = The enlivened mantra; a living mantra.
प्राणन = Central vital force-motion; metabolism; expiration.
प्रणव –(नाद) = The first mantra Ong (Aum, Om).
प्राण वायु = Energy entity which connects the body to the mind.
प्राणायाम = Fourth discipline of the eightfold path (ashtanga) of Yoga; yogic method of breath control.
प्रणिधान = Higher form of dedication.
प्रत्याहार = Fifth discipline of the eightfold path (ashtanga) of Yoga. Voluntary mental withdrawal from sensory objects; control of the senses.
प्रत्याहरण = Sensory withdrawal.
प्रत्यक्ष = Perception.
प्रतिभा = Genius.
पृथ्वी महाभूत = Earth metamatter.
पूजा = Form of Hindu cultural expression; veneration, worship.
पुनर्जन्मन् = Rebirth.
पूरक = Inspiration.
पूर्णविद्या = Supreme Consciousness.
पुरुष = Metempiric entity; disembodied consciousness; supra-consciousness; form of consciousness beyond duality that cannot be objectified; the Self.
राग = Craving, or attraction to mundane pleasures (cf. also dvesha).
राग-द्वेष = Natural alternation in man of the attraction of pleasure and its opposite.
रागातमिका भक्ति = Spiritual all-love.
रजस् = See gunas.
राज योग = Primary energy-principle. The “Royal Way”; one of the four fundamental paths of Mahâ-yog.
रस = The various water contents of the body; taste.
रेचक = Exhalation.
रेतस् = Male seed used in an advanced method of controlling sexual energy.
त्रेता युग = One of the four eras of manvantara.
ऋषि = Sage from Hindu antiquity able “to see” all the Vedas.
ऋतम्भर-प्रज्ञ = Super-consciousness revealing the truth.
रोध = Control.
रुचिर = Breath retention.
रुद्र = Supreme Consciousness manifesting the power of absorbing the Creation.
साधक = Synonym for chela and shishya.
साधन = See Yoga sâdhana.
सगर्भ = Breath-control combined with mantra and concentration.
सगुण-ध्यान = Deep concentration on form.
सहज = State of superconcentration.
सहित = Inspiratory-expiratory retention.
सकल = With manifested form.
समाधि = Eighth discipline of the eightfold path (ashtanga) of Yoga; end result of mental concentration. In this intense concentration the yogi has no more awareness of himself. Only the object of concentration, and nothing else, illuminates his consciousness. This stage of samâdhi is called samprajñâta, because the known is seen here in an extrasensory form. Samprajñâta samâdhi includes four subdivisions: vitarka, vichâra, asmitâ, and ânanda. See also asamprajñâta samâdhi.
समानन = Balancing force-motion.
समानयाम = Prânayâma method to control samâna.
सामान्य स्पन्द = Basic uniform infinitesimal motion.
समता = State of oneness by absorption into the Supreme.
सम्प्रज्ञात समाधि = See samâdhi.
संस्कार = Subliminal impressions.
सनातन धर्म = Sacred concept of an eternal order in Hindu thought; unites religion and metaphysics.
सञ्ज्ञान = Perceptive consciousness.
संयम = Highest level of Yoga mastery; superunion in a state of supercontrolled concentration.
संयोग = Superunion.
संतोष = Satisfaction.
सरस्वती चालन = Advanced process to awaken the Kundalinî.
सरूप ध्यान = Deep concentration on form.
सर्वभावात्मभावना = Multiform consciousness.
सर्व चित्त = Multiform consciousness.
सर्वार्थता = Scattering ; scattered consciousness.
सत् चित्त आनंद = Being-Consciousness-Bliss.
षट्कर्मन् = Six fundamental acts of bodily purification.
सत्त्व = See gunas.
सत्य = Truthfulness.
सत्य युग = One of the four eras (of truth) in Hindu cosmology.
शब्दब्रह्मन् = Aspect of Kundalini in its aspect of unmanifested sound (para sound).
शब्द तन्मात्र = Sound tanon.
शक्ति = Force; female aspect of the Divine. See Shiva-Shakti.
शक्तिचालन = Thoracico-abdomincal control exercise.
शाम्भवी = Internal gazing process.
शङ्कल्प/सङ्कल्प = Will-consciousness. Prewill.
शंखप्रक्षालन = Total self-cleansing of the intestine with water and no mechanical support.
शान्ति = Peace of mind (a prerequisite in Hindu tradition to embrace Yoga Sadhana); a girl’s given name.
शौच = Cleanliness.
शिष्य = Synonym for chela or sadhak.
शीतली = Lingual breath-control.
शिव-शक्ति = Experience of the Absolute, beyond the mind, where power (Shakti) is closely related to supreme consciousness (Shiva).
शोधन = Internal purification of the body.
श्रुति = Revealed writings of the Hindu culture in particular the Vedas, Brâhmanas, and Upanishads.
शुक्र = The sexual energy that produces sexual secretions in both females and males.
शुष्क-वस्ति = Self-cleansing with air, carried out without mechanical aid.
सिद्ध मन्त्र = Enlivened mantra to accomplish a specific purpose.
सिद्धासन = “Accomplished” -sitting posture.
सिद्धि = Extraordinary human powers.
शीत्कार/सीत्कार = A breathing process.
सोम = The anabolic principle of the body.
स्थिर = Steadiness.
स्थूल = The coarse aspect of visible things.
स्थूलक्रिया = Muscular control process.
सुख = Ease.
सूक्ष्मक्रिया = Breath-control process.
सूर्य कुण्डली = Sun Kundali.
सूत्र = Aphoristic statement from sacred Hindu literature.
सुखासन = Easy cross-leg posture known as the “tailor-posture”.
सूक्ष्म = Subtle.
सूर्यभेद = Right-nostril breath control.
सूर्यकुम्भक = Right-nostril inspiratory breath-control.
सुषुम्णा = The principal of the three pranic forms (nâdis).
स्वाध्याय = Spiritual study, including japa mantra.
स्वनान = (abbreviated as svanon). Seed-mantra.
स्वर योग = Alternative to prânayâma, based on an infra-diurnal breathing cycle.
स्वरूप = A particular sensory form.
तमस् = Primary inertia-principle; see gunas.
तन्मात्र या “तनोन” (गोस्वामी) = Miniaturized form of the bhutas, five in number.
तान्त्रिक (तान्त्रिका) योग = A more recent, enlarged form of Vedic Yoga expounded by Shiva and Parvati and collected in the Tantras.
तपस् = Asceticism; specific energy process.
तेजस् महाभूत = Fire metamatter.
त्राटक = Gazing.
त्रिरसर = A triangle.
तुर्य = Fourth state of consciousness beyond waking, sleeping, and dreaming.
तुर्य कुण्डली = Supreme Kundali.
उदानन = Centripetal force-motion.
उदानयाम = Prânayâma control process over prâna.
उड्डीयान = Voluntary abdominal retraction.
उड्डीयानबन्ध = Exercise of abdominal retraction.
उज्जायी = Both-nostrils breath-control.
उन्मनी = Non-oscillating consciousness.
उपांशु जप = The whispering of mantra.
उपासना = Spiritual practice.
ऊर्ध्व-रेतस् = He whose seminal flow is reversed.
वाच् = Word.
वाचक-शक्ति = Kundalini appearing as devatâ.
वाचिक जप = The vocal uttering of mantra.
वाच्य शक्ति = Power as conciousness.
वह्नि कुण्डली = Fire Kundali.
वहिधी-भक्ति = Ritualistic, devotional divine love.
वैखरी = Acoustic; mantra in its audible form.
वज्रोली = Advanced method of sexual control.
वाजु = Kinetic force; active manifestation of prâna.
वमन धौति = Self-cleansing of the stomach carried out with water.
वारिसर = Advanced self-cleansing of the intestinal tract with water, carried out without mechanical support.
वर्ण = Specific power-line created by the force of a mâtrikâ unit.
वस्त्र-धौति = Self-cleansing of the esophagus and the stomach by ingesting and withdrawing a long, narrow strip of gauze.
वासना = Latent impression of feeling.
वायुसार = Self-cleansing of the intestinal tract with air, carried out without mechanical support.
वैराग्य = State of nonattachment to earthly things.
वायु = Bio-energy, the constant motion of pranic force.
वेद = Knowledge. Name given to the four books revealed to the rishis in the time known as Vedic, which contain all divine wisdom. They are the Rig Veda, Sama Veda, Ayur Veda, and Atharva Veda.
वैदिक योग = The original form of Yoga shaped by the Vedic mantra language, and explained in the Upanishads.
विभूति = Super power; superhuman capacity.
विचार समाधि = Second stage of samâdhi where the yogi perceives a tanmâtra.
विद्या = Knowledge principle.
विज्ञान = Intellective consciousness.
विकल्प = Elevated thought.
विक्षिप्त = A scattered mind slightly modified under the influence of sattva.
विपर्यय = Misconception.
विषयवती प्रवृत्ति = Super-sensory enlightenment.
विशेष स्पन्द = Particularised motion that releases a particular sound.
विष्णु = God in his sustaining aspect.
वितर्क समाधि = First stage of samâdhi where the yogi perceives a bhuta as a separate element.
विवेकजा-ज्ञान = A perfect all-enlightening knowledge.
विवेकख्याति = Differentiating knowledge. Form of knowledge where Self and non-self appear as two distinct entities.
वृत्ति = Mental fluctuation by which consciousness takes the shape of an object; cognitive form; imaged consciousness and/or non-consciousness.
व्यायाम = Physical education; muscular exercise.
व्यान, व्यानन = Breath retention; Upanishadic terms for breath-suspension.
व्युत्थान = Post-concentration waking stage.
यज्ञम स्तोम = The germ of power-manifestation, which in Tantric terms consists of Supreme Nâda and Bindu.
यम = First discipline of Patanjali’s eightfold path (ashtanga) of Yoga, consisting of five ethical rules: ahimsâ, satya, asteya, brahmacharya, aparigraha; control, abstention.
योगश्चित्तवृत्तिनिरोधः = Traditional definition of Yoga according to Patanjali (2nd aphorism); state of mind in which all vritti cease.
योग दर्शन = “Philosophy” of Yoga.
योजन = Union.
योग-निद्रा = Yoga-sleep; superconcentration.
योग साधना = Path; practice of Yoga.
योगासन = Yogic posture; concentration posture.
योग विभूति = Omnipotency.
योनि मुद्रा = Exercise of sexual control.
युग = Long phase of Time in Hindu cosmology.